By Barbara Krauthamer
From the overdue eighteenth century throughout the finish of the Civil warfare, Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians acquired, offered, and owned Africans and African american citizens as slaves, a proven fact that endured after the tribes' removing from the Deep South to Indian Territory. The tribes formulated racial and gender ideologies that justified this custom and marginalized unfastened black humans within the Indian international locations good after the Civil warfare and slavery had ended. in the course of the finish of the 19th century, ongoing conflicts between Choctaw, Chickasaw, and U.S. lawmakers left untold numbers of former slaves and their descendants within the Indian international locations with out citizenship in both the Indian international locations or the USA. during this groundbreaking research, Barbara Krauthamer rewrites the background of southern slavery, emancipation, race, and citizenship to bare the centrality of local American slaveholders and the black humans they enslaved.
Krauthamer's exam of slavery and emancipation highlights the methods Indian women's gender roles replaced with the coming of slavery and adjusted back after emancipation and divulges complicated dynamics of race that formed the lives of black humans and Indians either earlier than and after removal.
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